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Juvenile Justice

Similar to other areas, the movement toward restorative justice has started with changes in the juvenile justice system.

. A decade of progress: Promising models for children in the Turkish juvenile justice system.
Turkey has improved its approach to interacting with children in conflict with the law over the past decade, moving closer to a system that ensures its children the opportunity to strive for a better future. This Article focuses on two promising Turkish reforms that hold potential to improve juvenile justice systems internationally, namely: open model incarceration and Turkey ' approach to diversion. This Article demonstrates how a child-centeredjuvenilej ustice system can improve public safety and outcomes for youth. It also addresses potential challenges to each model and identifies broader issues that may require reform. (author's abstract)
. Innovative Law Old Services: Application and Limitations in the Application of Restorative Justice in Italy: Description and Analysis of a Case Study.
This study aims to present how restorative justice is applied in the context of the Italian legislature through a case study. In particular, the relationship between a judge of the Juvenile Court, the local Social Services and the drug addiction service is presented. After a brief presentation of the history of Italian juvenile justice and a comment on the current model of juvenile justice, a number of critical issues, organisational and technical, will be analysed. From this, the need to renew some local services will emerge, in relation to the cultural and judicial approach to minor offenders. (authors' abstract)
A review of the Youth Justice System in Northern Ireland
from the report by the Department of Justice Northern Ireland: One of the most positive developments to have arisen out of Northern Ireland’s recent history is the expansion of rich and varied restorative practices. Restorative approaches have been used to respond to offending and anti-social behaviour, family disputes, disruptive behaviour in schools and children’s homes and in helping prisoners reintegrate back into their communities. Early teething problems have been largely overcome and professional practice in restorative justice in Northern Ireland is now internationally recognised.
Allen, Rob. "‘There Must be Some Way of Dealing with Kids’: Young Offenders, Public Attitudes and Policy Change"
NNew Labour’s youth justice reforms have left progressives disappointed by a failure to take more radical steps to raise the age of criminal responsibility and phase out penal custody. This paper argues that the basic punitive orientation governing youth justice policy was established in the early 1990s, in the wake of concern about persistent juvenile offenders and the high-profile James Bulger case. The punitive orientation of policy is apparently supported by public opinion, or at least the perception of public opinion held by policy makers. The paper summarises what is known about public attitudes to adult and juvenile offenders and suggests a strategy to increase understanding and raise the level of debate, which are prerequisites for any fundamental change in policy orientation. (author's abstract)
Allen, Rob. From Punishment to Problem Solving: A New Approach to Children in Trouble.
This report looks at one of the key priorities for the New Labour administration in 1997, dealing with young offenders. Reforming youth justice was not only an end in itself. The new government observed that most adult offenders in the prisons started their offending careers as children and young people. By creating responses to youth crime which were more effective in turning young people away from delinquency, it was hoped to provide substantial benefits for society as a whole. (excerpt)
Axing the Youth Justice Board could be a bold step
from Rod Morgan's article on guardian.co.uk: For the past few months I have argued that a question mark should hang over the continued existence of the Youth Justice Board. There may yet be a downside to its abolition, announced in the quango cull. But I am not in mourning and doubt I will be.... What should be done? First, the Ministry of Justice (MoJ), Home Office and Department for Education should jointly ensure that there is more out-of-court diversion of young offenders accompanied by interventions of a supportive nature, based on the lessons of the Scottish children's hearings system.
Balahur, Doina. Romanian juvenile justice system towards its way to restorative practices.
The practice of VOM in Romania has been experimentally undertaken in Bucharest and Craiova. The two experimental centres have been set up in 2002 based on the partnership between the Department of Reintegration from Romanian Ministry of Justice, Centre for Legal Resources and the Foundation Family and Child Care. The technical assistance has been provided by the experts of DFID from UK. According to the aims and objectives of the VOM experiment only those types of crimes have been selected which are based on the criminal complain of the victim (battering, assault and other crimes against the person, insult etc). The persons - victims and young offenders - have been integrated based on their voluntary consent. (excerpt)
Baldry, Anna C and Volpini, Laura and Scali, Melania. "Mediation in the Italian juvenile justice system: A mediation service project."
The authors of this article survey the status and function of mediation in the Italian juvenile justice system – at the time of writing, mediation was not available in the adult system in Italian. Restorative justice principles were introduced into the Italian juvenile justice system in 1988 in accord with United Nations’ Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice. Topics discussed include the following: the justice system perspective on the nature of juvenile offending; the administration of mediation within the system; and the development of a new, independent mediation service by a group of experts at the University of Rome.
Bassett, Penny and Lee,Tim. Restorative Justice and Protective Behaviours: A Perfect Match.
On the 21st May 2009 at Egrove Park,Oxford, 120 people attended the launch of the Oxfordshire Young Victims of Crime project; one of several Home Office initiatives intended to improve support for young people who have been hurt through crime.Pete Wallis, the Restorative Justice lead for Oxfordshire Youth Offending Service, gave an overview of the project, explaining that it was founded on two main philosophies - Restorative Justice and Protective Behaviours. In his address Pete commented that 'Protective Behaviours and Restorative Justice were a perfect match'. Many of the audience would have been familiar with the principles and concepts of RJ but it is likely that fewer of them had heard of Protective Behaviours (PBs). So what is PBs, how does it work and how does it complement RJ so well? (excerpt)
Blackburn, Maddie. Report on: Oxfordshire Youth Offending Service
The Oxfordshire Youth Offending Service operates across a large county. It is one of the largest youth offending services inspected in the first phase of the inspection program conducted by the Healthcare Commission and other agencies of the national government. The first several years after implementation of the national youth justice reforms in April 2000 have seen significant changes. Youth offending teams (YOT) have been established across England and Wales; new orders and interventions have been introduced; a common assessment system has been developed; and more emphasis has been given to a range of approaches, including prevention, restorative justice, and victim services. This then is the first full inspection in the context of these changes. This report covers the following aspects of the Oxfordshire Youth Offending Service: management and partnership arrangements; children and young people who offend or who are at risk; work with parents and caregivers; and work with victims.
Bolkovaya, Svetlana. Urai: Idea Infection
Svetlana Bolkovaya is the restorative justice program coordinator in Urai in Russia. With the rate of juvenile delinquency in Uria increasing in recent years, it became clear to criminal justice officials and others that the accepted measures of dealing with juvenile offenders and their parents were not successful. New approaches were needed to respond to juveniles with destructive and deviant behavior, as well as with troubled families. Therefore, in 2000 she and others took part in a restorative justice seminar in Tyumen, the seminar being led by the Public Centre for Legal and Judicial Reform. Bolkovaya explains how this led to the development of restorative justice initiatives in Urai, and she describes some of the cases being handled through restorative principles and processes.
Boyd, Colin. Youth Justice and the Protection of Children and Youth
This report outlines what programs Scotland has set up for juvenile justice, particularly explaining and evaluating their Children's Hearing System. It goes on to detail what future programs are being constructed and Scotland hopes to achieve in its juvenile justice system.
Brutto, Sabrina and Padovani, Alessandro and Balahur, Doina. Probation and Restorative Justice in Romania and Italy.
This book reviews recent trends in European-style juvenile justice systems and explores diversionary and alternative dispute resolution strategies. The lines of enquiries developed within this book argue for the possibility and desirability of special treatment for children in the juvenile justice system. Part I, "Probation and Restorative Justice in Romania," maps the competing trends and models of juvenile justice while attempting to identify where Romanian juvenile justices stands among them. The content of Part I includes: Competing Models of Juvenile Justice: Social-Legal Perspectives and Applied Research of Social Work; Juvenile Offenders Who Are Not Criminally Responsible: The Potential of Restorative Justice; and, Romanian Probation System between Past and Future. Part II,"Probation and Restorative Justice in Italy," examines the complex problems of juvenile delinquency in Italy. The content of Part II includes: Restorative Justice: An International and Critical Overview; Juvenile Delinquency: The Italian Context; The Italian Juvenile Justice System: An Introduction; and, Probation and Educational Measures for Juveniles in Italy. Part III, "Italian and Norwegian Restorative Justice Experiences," offers a comparative analysis of restorative justice in Italy and Norway within the frame of the European project, COST A21. The content of Part III includes: Looking into the Question of Marginalization of Juveniles by Comparing Italian and Norwegian Restorative Justice Experiences. (Abstract courtesy of the National Criminal Justice Reference Service, www.ncjrs.gov).
Campbell, Catriona and O'Mahony, David. Mainstreaming Restorative Justice for Young Offenders through Youth Conferencing - the experience of Northern Ireland
The youth justice system in Northern Ireland is quite distinct and different to that in the rest of the United Kingdom or Ireland. It has also evolved considerably in the past ten to fifteen years and there have been very significant changes to its whole philosophy and operation as recently as 2003, with the introduction of a Youth Conferencing Service. The Conferencing Service now deals with young offenders using an approach based around the principles of restorative justice and the very process and structure of the system has changed to incorporate this new approach (detailed below). This paper looks at crime and how the criminal justice system in Northern Ireland deals with young people who have offended. It examines what is known about youth offending in general and looks specifically at a number of innovative approaches to criminal justice practice. The police response to youth offending is examined and their specialist teams of officers who deal with young offenders. The courts and sentencing are then looked at with attention being placed on the new arrangements for holding children in custody. The range of measures introduced following the Criminal Justice Review are then examined, and specifically the youth conferencing arrangements, which adopt a restorative justice model to deal with young offenders. The paper draws to a close with a critical overview of the major changes in our system of youth justice and the possible lessons that can be learnt from an international perspective. (excerpt)
Chapman, Alice and McAllister, Mary Jo. No soft solution, the effectiveness of youth conferencing in Northern Ireland -- How victims and offenders of serious crime prefer it to the traditional system.
The Belfast Agreement 1998 set out new directions for government in Northern Ireland including criminal justice. It formed the Criminal Justice Review to review the whole criminal justice system and to produce a range of recommendations. Amongst many other matters it recommended that restorative justice should be at the core of the Northern Irish youth justice system. Subsequently the Justice [NI] Act 2002 provided legislation for the establishment of the Youth Justice Agency and the Youth Conference Service to facilitate youth conferences according to restorative justice principles. A restorative youth conference is available for any offence except an offence for which if the young person was an adult would require a period of life imprisonment.(excerpt)
Christy, Lotte. Dilemmas and Possibilities in Mediation Programmes for 12-15 Year Old Youngsters.
The 12-15 year olds have conflicts with each other – in class, at school, in the club, in the street. Some have conflicts with their parents or other adults. Most of them solve their conflicts themselves. But not all conflicts can be solved without help. And conflicts that are not solved can do great harm. In the worst cases they escalate and develop into violence and crime. On the other hand conflicts that are solved can give the parties new options in life. The idea of this project is to give the young people a helping hand. The project ‘Mediation for 12-15 year olds’ has been carried out in co-operation between the Ministry of Social Affairs, the Danish Crime Prevention Council and 8 municipalities. It was carried out from 2003 to 2005. (excerpt)
Community Justice Centers in Armenia
In 2006, two Community Justice Centers opened in Armenia to provide restorative justice services to first-time young offenders. They were developed by an NGO, Project Harmony, and Armenian law enforcement professionals and educators. In this article, Renee Berrian, programme manager with Project Harmony, provides an overview of the development of the Community Justice Centers in Armenia.
Crawford, Adam and Newburn, Tim. Recent Developments in Restorative Justice for Young People in England and Wales: Community Participation and Representation
This article examines some recent attempts to introduce elements of restorative justice into the youth justice system. We focus on the introduction of referral orders and youth offender panels and, in particular, consider the issues of community participation and representation. In examining the early experiences of these new ways of working we highlight a series of questions that arise out of the tension between the participatory character of restorative justice and the managerialist nature of much contemporary youth justice in England and Wales.
Crawford, Adam. Involving Lay People in Criminal Justice
Despite the contemporary academic and policy interest surrounding restorative and community justice, rigorous and extensive evaluations of initiatives are only recently coming to the fore, to take their place alongside small-scale case studies and anecdotes as ways of understanding and storytelling about restorative and community justice in public policy discourse. In their article, Karp and Drakulich have added a further important layer to our comprehension of the possibilities and pitfalls in implementing particular models of justice informed by restorative ideals. In what follows, I want to reflect on a fundamental, but often unasked, public policy question raised by the Vermont Reparative Boards and the thoughtful evaluation of them provided by Karp and Drakulich; namely; why involve lay people in criminal/restorative justice interventions? As they note, "there are still important questions to ask about the increased involvement of volunteers in the criminal justice system." In reflecting on these questions, I will draw on some recent developments in England and Wales, referred to by the authors in their article, notably, research conducted into Youth Offender Panels, which share some (qualified) similarities with Reparative Boards (see Crawford and Newburn, 2003). (excerpt)
Crawford, Adam. The Prospects for Restorative Youth Justice in England and Wales: A Tale of Two Acts
Adam Crawford opens this chapter with the observation that restorative justice is not only a major development in criminological thinking but also a global social movement. At the heart of restorative justice philosophy, he says, lies a concern with a particular mode of participatory and inclusive conflict resolution, as well as an emphasis on healing relationships, restoring victims, restoring offenders, and restoring communities. It is on these bases that Crawford explores the manner in which recent developments in England and Wales with respect to juvenile offenders have been affected by restorative justice ideas; he further considers their potential implications within the current criminal justice policy context. Youth justice reforms developed in England and Wales over two distinct waves of legislation: the Crime and Disorder Act 1998; and the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999. In discussing these developments, Crawford argues that the current government has adopted an eclectic, scattered approach to the integration of restorative justice into the youth justice system, and that this approach contains a number of tensions and contradictions.

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