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Community/Neighbourhood/Problem-Oriented Policing

Sometimes linked to restorative values, these approaches to policing emphasize strong relationships between police officers and community members with an orientation toward helping the community solve problems.

The Rise and Fall of Restorative Justice on Boulder’s University Hill
Thomas Russell provides background to the initiation and decline of a restorative justice programme in Boulder, Colorado. His description provides lessons for restorative justice implementation.
Eriksson, Anna. Justice in Transition: Community Restorative Justice in Ireland
Eriksson's work is a comprehensive review of how community-based restorative justice operates and what it has achieved in Northern Ireland. She begins with a general introduction to the history, values, achievements, and critiques of restorative justice, and then she explores how it works in communities, especially transitional communities. Northern Ireland is just such a transitional society, characterized by several forms of informal social control. One of them, restorative justice, developed as an alternative to more violent forms like policing by paramilitary organizations. It took a long time to socialize communities into accepting and understanding what restorative justice aimed to do. Eriksson explains how restorative justice functions in communities in Northern Ireland and walks the readers through several individual cases. She continues with an exploration of how the leaders in the restorative justice movement are drawn from the surrounding community and what impact that has on the cultural setting. Expanding the scope beyond the local community, Eriksson argues that restorative justice efforts are facilitating large-scale changes in the national sphere. Ultimately in her view, the example of Northern Ireland demonstrates that restorative justice should be more boldly implemented in other transitional societies.
Martin, Margaret E. Community Policing: Restoring Justice?
Community policing, the new term for problem-solving, accountable to community policing, now the dominant paradigm of policing in the United States is rapidly becoming a preferred policy of policing internationally. This policing approach has been employed in Australia, Canada, Great Britain, India, Kenya, Northern Ireland, Malawi, Sierra Leone, the Solomon Islands, South Africa, Trinidad, Zambia, and more. (excerpt) Multiple policing practices which are essentially anti-bureaucratic, decentralized, responsive to the public, attentive to crime prevention and problem-solving have become known as "community policing." The theory and method followed early disparate practices. Although many suggest that this approach is essentially a return to earlier forms of policing, some argue that this represents a heightened stage of the modern evolution of policing. Nonetheless, begun in various jurisdictions in the United States and quickly embraced by the National Institute of Justice, this style of policing has rapidly replaced previous types of policing activity in the United States to the level that more than 85 percent of the US population is now served by some type of community policing force. But important questions need to be asked. How will this new paradigm of policing survive export? How does community policing fit for the special challenges of policing divided societies? And importantly, is community policing congruent with or contradictory to principles of restorative justice?
City programs honored during excellence awards' 20th anniversary
from the press release by Cherie Duvall Jones: The Awards for Municipal Excellence will be celebrating 20 years of success as it honors eight innovative city programs during [the National League of City's] Congress of Cities and Exposition, this week in San Antonio. “These eight Awards for Municipal Excellence cities have improved the quality of life for their citizens by developing creative solutions to pressing local problems,” said Donald J. Borut, NLC executive director. “I congratulate them for establishing model programs that can serve as positive examples for other cities.”
Settles, Tanya Lynne. Community Policing and Community Adjudication: Toward a Theory of Organizational Co-Evolution in Criminal Justice Administration
This study examines how and why police agencies that engage in community policing strategies interact with judicial agencies that utilize community adjudication, including restorative justice, community courts, community prosecution, and similar tactics. This study investigates the interaction between community policing and community adjudication to determine organizational and intergovernmental strategies that permit both types of agencies to achieve common goals in a way that is responsive to the communities they serve. Author's abstract.
True community policing means restorative justice
from the entry by Macleay for Oakland Mayor 2010: Community Policing has become one of those "assumed good things" that we all are supposed to support. But what do we mean by community policing? Does it mean we should be happy with just having a police officer at a community meeting, or on the street? Is a beat cop the whole story? Is there a role for the community beyond being informants? My view of Community Policing has to do with merging community values and existing statues. Local communities need to be involved in helping community youth become aware and understand what is acceptable and what is not.
"The public wants to be involved": A roundtable conversation about community and restorative justice
from the report by Robert V. Wolf for the Center for Court Innovation: When participants were asked to list the goals of community engagement, six areas attracted broad support: 1. Empowering communities While the concept of giving community members more power is a key ingredient of many initiatives, the nature of the power varies. In San Francisco’s Neighborhood Courts, community volunteers have the authority to determine guilt and can even dismiss cases while volunteers on Atlanta’s restorative justice panels can only adjust the terms of a sentence handed down by a court. For defenders, empowerment involves education—specifically educating the public about the role of defense organizations and navigating the justice system. “Our goal is to help people understand what we do and clarify our role and to trust us,” said James Berry, of the Public Defender Service for the District of Columbia. “We don’t feel an obligation to promote the police or prosecutors, but we do have an interest in helping people to understand what we do and how we help to balance the equation.”
Ford appointed to Genesee Justice coordinator post
from the article in The Daily News: Shannon L. Ford has been appointed to fill the position of Genesee Justice program coordinator, the Genesee County Sheriff’s Office said Friday. The position was created after a vacancy was left by the resignation of the assistant director.
Pranis, Kay. Building support for community justice: Principles and strategies
Declaring that the current criminal justice system is in crisis, Pranis advances the potential of restorative justice theory and practice as a comprehensive alternative.
Paterson, Craig and Clamp, Kerry Leigh. Exploring recent developments in restorative policing in England and Wales.
The evolution of the policing role over the last decade has led to 33 police forces in England and Wales integrating restorative justice practices, in one form or another, into their responses to minor crime committed for the first time by both youths and adults. Most recently, this reform dynamic has been used in response to more serious offences committed by persistent offenders and expanded to include all stages of the criminal justice process. Despite the significant positive rhetoric that surrounds the adoption and use of restorative justice, there are a number of procedural and cultural challenges that pose a threat to the extent to which restorative justice may become embedded within the policing response. This article explores these developments and highlights where potential problems for implementation may arise as well as some strategies to overcome them. (author's abstract)
McCold, Paul. An Experiment in Police-Based Restorative Justice: The Bethlehem (PA) Project
This paper presents several of the major findings from an experimental evaluation of a new problem-oriented policing practice. First-time moderately serious juvenile offenders were randomly assigned either to formal adjudication or to a diversionary 'restorative policing' process called family group conferencing. Police-based conferencing employs trained police officers to facilitate a meeting attended by juvenile offenders, their victims, and their respective family and friends, to discuss the harm caused by the offender's actions and to develop and agreement to repair the harm The impact of the program reported in this paper was measured through surveys of victims, offenders, offender's parents, and police officers and by examining outcomes of conferences and formal adjudication. Results are related to five concerns raised about restorative policing. (author's abstract)
Kerner, Hans-Jürgen and Weitekamp, Elmar G. M. Community and Problem-oriented Policing in the Context of Restorative Justice
Problem-oriented policing and community policing both have the same philosophical roots and share some important characteristics. One of these characteristics is decentralization in order to encourage officer initiative and the effective use of local knowledge. Another is geographical rather than functionally defined subordinate units in order to develop local knowledge. And, finally, they share close interactions with local communities in order to facilitate responsiveness to, and cooperation with, the community. Problem-oriented policing tries to solve regional crime problems but the main focus is the solving of crimes and the underlying causes of crime through restructuring of the police force and changes in police organization. The main focus of community-oriented policing is the improvement of the relationship between the police and the citizens. A balanced and restorative police-community prevention program could address the shortcomings of existing problem- and community-oriented police concepts. The idea behind the balanced and restorative justice model was to develop a program for community supervision for juveniles. Restorative justice heavily emphasizes maximum involvement of the victim, the offender, and the community in the process of restoring peace. This model includes four key elements: accountability, community protection, competency development, and balance. But it is missing one major component: the police represented through their police officers. It is absolutely necessary to include the police in a model that is supposed to make a community safer, reduce fear of crime levels, create and implement successful prevention strategies, improve quality of life, and restore peace within the community.Abstract courtesy of National Criminal Justice Reference Service, www.ncjrs.org.
Font, Enrique and Wood, Jennifer and Shearing, Clifford. Nodal Governance and Restorative Justice.
Our argument is that restorative justice values are expressed in varied ways through different institutional arrangements and technologies. In other words, there is a range of governance forms that serve to push forward a restorative agenda. In developing this argument we will examine the ways in which corporate forms of governance can be seen to realize the restorative focus on future-oriented, nonretributive and self-directed problem solving. We will then examine two “local capacity governance” initiatives in South Africa and Argentina that function to harness the knowledge, capacities and resources of very poor communities in furtherance of peaceful collective living. (excerpt)
Pollard, Charles.. Restorative Justice, Problem-Solving and Community Policing
Under the general topic of restorative justice and the role of the police, Sir Charles Pollard focuses in this paper on restorative justice, problem-solving, and community policing. As Pollard notes, the role and function of the police in many countries fit within a similar framework: bring to justice those who break the law by arresting, detaining, or summoning them; and work with prosecutors to bring offenders before a court of law. He cites the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) in the United States as, at one time, an exemplar of this approach: fast, forceful reaction to law-breaking. However, as became clear in the 1992 riots following the Rodney King incident, the LAPD was out of touch with the city’s communities. Pollard contrasts this with a more restorative justice, problem-solving approach to policing: preventive, proactive, community-rooted, and community-oriented. To illustrate this approach, he highlights the work of the Thames Valley Police in England, particularly its Milton Keynes Retail Theft Initiative.
Martin, Margaret E. Restoring Justice Through Community Policing: The Northern Ireland Case.
After describing the theory, practice, and values of restorative justice, this article examines them in relation to community policing ideology and practice under the police reforms in Northern Ireland. Central to the ideals of restorative justice are the accountability of offenders in consultation with their victims in order to repair the harms done to the victims and to the community, followed by correction of offender behaviors in order to prevent future harms. In a jurisdiction where conflict among residents and between residents and police has been intense, these restorative justice principles are relevant. Police and citizens must consult with one another in efforts to remedy harms, and reform behaviors so as to change the quality of future interactions. Community policing has been promoted as reflective of the democratic principles of accountability, transparency, and sensitivity to the security needs of all community residents. In examining the links between community policing and restorative justice, this article discusses the expressed goals or ideology of each paradigm, the values promoted, and the practices and processes used. By conducting this discussion in the context of Northern Ireland's police reforms, which have incorporated the values of community policing, this article shows how community policing can heal previous conflicts through the application of restorative justice principles, i.e., attention to addressing the harms suffered by all citizens while listening to the community's complaints about where the police have failed to address various public safety needs, followed by the formulation of new behaviors in cooperative actions between police and the community to ensure public safety. Abstract courtesy of National Criminal Justice Reference Service, www.ncjrs.org.
Jeavons, Robert. Community Policing, Manx-Style
The Isle of Man is a small independent island of around 73,000 people in the middle of the Irish Sea. Robert Jeavons is Chair of the Isle of Man Police Consultative Forum. As Jeavons states, in response to public demand, renewed efforts have been made in the last several years to reestablish community policing – an approach to policing emphasizing local initiatives and solutions within broad national policies and priorities. Jeavons describes the process of public consultation in the development of community policing, and he speculates on the potential benefits of this approach for the people of the Isle of Man.
Royal Canadian Mounted Police. RCMP First Nations Community Policing Service
The First Nations Policing Policy, announced by the Canadian government in 1991, provides First Nations communities with greater control over the delivery and management of policing services in their communities. This document is an information booklet from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police to supplement the First Nations Policing Policy booklet produced by the Ministry of the Solicitor General of Canada. It outlines the major elements of the RCMP First Nations Community Policing Service, including accountability to the community, community justice initiatives, funding, management, and other aspects of this policing.
Alfieri, Anthony V. Faith in community: Representing "colored town": "What about this isn't community?".
Community lawyering is all about faith, faith in others and faith outside the law. ... '" CEDAD's work in Coconut Grove Village West, Overtown, and Liberty City illustrates the broad range of race-conscious legal and non-legal interventions open to lawyers working collaboratively with individual clients and client groups to aid low-income communities of color. ... These dilemmas create the backdrop for CEDAD's community lawyering decisions to offer assistance in Umoja Village, to mediate homeowner/tenant, victim/offender, and nonprofit development conflicts in Village West, and to introduce medical-legal advocacy resources in Overtown. ... Even when carefully crafted, race-conscious community lawyering runs the risk of encouraging an essentialist construction of racial identity and narrative in legal advocacy on behalf of communities of color. ... Debate over the content of client identity and narrative in advocacy is predicated on a fuller notion of autonomy than the standard conception of the lawyering process contemplates. ... Together they burden CEDAD's community lawyering decisions to offer assistance to the Umoja Village homeless squatters, to mediate the homeowner/tenant, victim/offender, and nonprofit conflicts in Village West, and to channel medical-legal advocacy resources to Overtown. ... The same identity-making and narrative practices materialize in assisting communities of color in combating poverty. (Abstract).
Pfeifer, Jeffrey. "Developing Effective Community Policing Programs Through a Therapeutic Jurisprudence Model"
This article suggests that there is a growing disconnect between the practice of community policing and the specific examination and evaluation of the concept. Specifically it is suggested that there is little empirical evidence available regarding the effectiveness of community and policing initiatives and that, as a result, concerns have been raised regarding the development of these programs. The major challenges to developing community policing programs are received and a therapeutic jurisprudence model is proposed as guidance for the development of future programs.
Bucqueroux, Bonnie. Community criminal justice: Building on the lessons that community policing teaches.
As Bucqueroux notes, proponents of community policing believe that it has the potential to serve as the model for dramatic reform of the entire criminal justice system. At the same time, the history of community policing reveals lessons about the problems involved in implementing a community criminal justice system. In this context, Bucqueroux explores both the opportunities and the obstacles in community policing. Her article covers traditional policing and its limitations, principles of community policing, and a vision for a community criminal justice system.

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